Mysore State | Hyder Ali | Tipu Sultan | Mysore State UPSC | Modern history


 The history of Mysore is is going on thousands of years since the heart of South India, which is connected to the enthusiasm of the uplift and fall, colonialism and the passion of colonialism. With its origins related to the ancient dynasties such as Hoysala and Vijayanagar Empire, Mysore emerged as a major center of art, culture and governance. However, during the reign of the Vodayar Dynasty in the 16th century, Mysore actually flourished, which established itself as a powerful state to be known for the protection of art and military skills.


 European powers, especially the arrival of the British East India Company wrote a new chapter in the history of Mysore. Anglo-Mysore wars who fought between the British and Mysoury rulers gave a new look of the region, which was defeated by the defeat of Tipu Sultan in 1799 and after the establishment of British occupation.

Even so, the journey of Mysore did not end with colonial subjugation. The state played an important role in the freedom struggle of India, in which leaders like M. Vishweshwarya and Krishnaraj Wador IV advocated self-governance and socio-economic progress.

 Ultimately, in 1956, Mysore became part of the state's newly formed Karnataka state, which is a symbol of a new era of regional unity and cultural diversity. Today, the legacy of Mysore is maintained through its vibrant traditions, architectural miracles and rich communities, which reflects the flexibility and feeling of their people from the ages.

Mysore State : 

After the battle of Talikota in 1565 AD, the Wandiyar dynasty was established in Mysore in 1612 AD during the reign of Venkat II. It was a part of the Vijayanagara kingdom. In 1704 AD, the king of Mysore, Chikka Devaraj, accepted the suzerainty of Aurangzeb. In 1719 AD, the Marathas got the right to collect Chauth from Mysore.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, the king of Mysore was Chikka Krishnaraja, but the real power lay in the hands of two ministers Nanjaraj and Devaraj. Devaraj was the chief commander (Dalwai) and Nanjaraj was the revenue and middle controller (Sarvadhikari). Later, Nanjaraj became the supreme ruler of the Mysore kingdom. At the same time, a capable person named Hyder Ali joined the army of Nanjaraj, who one day became the master of the Mysore kingdom on the basis of his ability.

 Hyder Ali : 

Hyder Ali was born in 1722 in a simple family in Kolar district of Mysore. His father Fateh Muhammad was a military officer in a fort in Mysore. He died in a war in 1728. After growing up, Hyder started working as a simple soldier with Nanjaraj. Impressed by his war skills, Mysore's Prime Minister Nanjaraj appointed Hyder as the Faujdar of Dindigul fort in 1755. On becoming the Faujdar, he did two things -

First, to overcome his lack of illiteracy, he appointed a Brahmin named Khanderao as his advisor

and second, he appointed French officers to train his army in a modern way so that western technology could be adopted.

With the help of the French, he established a modern branch in Dindigul in 1755 AD. Staying here, Hyder collected wealth by looting the surrounding areas and increased his power and prestige. After this, the capital was shifted from Mysore to Srirangapatna. 

Hyder Ali played an important role in protecting Mysore from the Maratha attack in 1759 AD. On this occasion, Nanjaraj appointed him as the commander of Mysore. Khanderao was a conspiratorial person, he assured the Queen Mother that he could end the power of Nanjaraj with the help of Hyder. With the support of the Queen Mother, Hyder ended Nanjaraj and declared himself the ruler of Mysore in 1760 AD. 

In 1763 AD, the king of Vedanur died and two successors arose claiming the throne.  After getting both of them killed, Hyder appointed his own person as the sub-administrator and changed the name of Vedanur to Hydernagar. Information is available about Hyder Ali suppressing and conquering the Nayaks of Malabar. He forced the Poligars of South India to accept subordination and also annexed Sunda, Siri and Guti to his kingdom.

In 1764, Peshwa Madhavrao attacked Mysore. Hyder fought with the Marathas in the plains of Halivali, south of Savanur. But, he was defeated. As a result, he had to enter into a treaty in March, 1765 AD. According to the treaty, he had to give the districts of Guti and Savanur and 32 lakh rupees to the Marathas.

Hyder Ali was the first person among the Indian powers in the Deccan to defeat the British. He died in 1782 AD due to injuries during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. There were eighteen departments in Hyder's central government. Most of his ministers were Hindus.  There were 33 thousand horsemen in his army. He donated to the temple of Chamundeshwari Devi in   Mysore. He had the idols of Shiva, Parvati and Vishnu engraved on his copper and gold coins.

Tipu Sultan (1782 AD to 1799 AD) :

After the death of Hyder Ali, his son Tipu became the ruler of Mysore. Thomas Munro had said about him that "Tipu is a restless soul who follows new ways." Tipu assumed the title of Badshah in 1787 AD, issued coins in his name and used Arabic names of years and months instead of Hindu names.

Tipu implemented the modern calendar. Adopted new techniques of coin minting and adopted modern standards of measurement. When, as a result of the French Revolution, some French soldiers proposed to make a Jacobin ring in Srirangapatna, he gladly accepted it. He himself became a member of the Jacobin Club and started calling himself Citizen Tipu. He planted a tree of liberty in Srirangapatna.

Tipu sent his envoys to places like Arabia, Afghanistan, France, Turkey, Constantinople and Mauritius. Hindus were also appointed to high positions in his court.  Purnia and Krishnarao were his two prominent Hindu ministers. He had appointed a lieutenant Ripou of the French navy in his service. The Sringeri letters found a few years ago reveal that when a part of the Sringeri temple was destroyed by Maratha attacks in 1791 AD, on the request of the chief priest of Sringeri, Tipu gave money for the repair of the temple and for the installation of the idol of Sharada Devi.

The Sultan never interfered in the worship of Sriranganatha Narasimha or Gangadhareshwar temple situated in the fort of Srirangapatna. This is an example of his religious tolerance.

Conclusion : 

In the conclusion, the history of Mysore State shows the complexity of India's past, which is marked with interdependence between indigenous dynasties, colonial forces and aspirations of its people. As the center of cultural and political power, from its ancient roots to its role in the struggle of independence, Mysore has faced the changes of centuries with flexibility and determination. As it is developing within the broad framework of modern India, Mysore's rich heritage is a proof of the permanent heritage of the area shaped by its past while embracing the permanent spirit and future of its residents.

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